The first research of an architect when he or she is doing a project whether it’s commercial, residential or a public project. A question comes to mind when we illustrate drawings and plans for the purpose of giving the land a value where we live, work and pray. What methods were used to build or design a structure in prehistoric times and what was the flow that kept architecture growing decades by decades. How people with less equipment and exposure manage to build such extra-ordinary and invincible structures, some of which are actually impossible for us to build in this modern era. Structures like pyramids, Hammurabi’s palace, the Greek structures, Roman Coliseum and many other buildings that exist even now in their positions.
The history that we follow is divided into many phases, some of which are contradictory in time. There are total of 7 phases in architecture according to the history recorded by historians and the remains found by archaeologists excluding the modern time. The history starts from Neolithic background and ends till now which is the 21st century. In this chapter we will gradually define every phase and its sub phases will be defined in the further chapters.
- Neolithic Architecture
In the Neolithic period which is known as the starting phase of building and constructing, people use to make their homes with mud bricks, tree trunks and many other natural material. Neolithic means “New Stone”. Which started 9000 BC.
- Ancient Architecture (East Africa And Mediterranean)
Ancient Architecture started with Mesopotamian and Egyptian architecture. Unbelievably huge structures and without the help of big tools, this era partially consisted of human effort. Ancient architecture further includes Greek, Roman, Byzantine and Roman Architecture.
- Islamic Architecture
Religious as well as secular architectural styles were imposed in Islamic Era. Mosques, Forts and palaces were the major religious places that influenced Islamic architecture. Islamic architecture not only contributed its elements in religious aspects but also gave its concept in domestic architecture.
- African Architecture
African architecture was mostly influenced by Islam and Christianity. Many of the great mosques and churches can be seen in South and North Africa, some of which were destroyed. The largest medieval city and primitive culture of Africa is Zimbabwe. The Kings lived in the palaces and the people around the king’s section of the palace. Many of the buildings were made out of mud in timber.
- Southern Asian Architecture
Southern Asian architecture involves Indian Architecture, which include temples, palaces, forts, tombs and many other religious places according to the believes of Hindus. Indian Architecture is mostly influenced by Hindu culture based on the religious surrounding of Hinduism. The Temples were mostly built on high ground levels with the never ending wide stairs. Big domes were installed on the top of the temples. Pattadakal and Aihole are one of the earliest temples recorded in Indian Architecture.
- Buddhist Architecture
Buddhist architecture was also developed in south Asia in 3rd century BCE. The Architecture is related to the religious aspects of the early Buddhism. Monasteries and Stupas were made thoroughly some of which are now considered as temples. Very large halls were created for the purpose of praying. Residential areas were also made with respect to the religious tradition.
- Eastern Asia Architecture
These people were very religious and because of that very few work was done on the domestic part. Chinese, Korean and Japanese innovated the timber architecture and built curved roofs with big lawns and very wide openings with detailed columns. They built towers for residential purposes as well as for security (watch towers). This era included Chinese, Japanese, and Korean architecture.